The surface area of the island of Fuerteventura, measuring 1,658 km2, is the second largest in the Canary Islands.
Unlike the other islands, the island has vast plains, and its central axis is one elongated plain, where most of the highest hills are to be found. The relief of the island of Fuerteventura corresponds to a state of advanced maturity and although there have been numerous volcanic eruptions throughout its geological history, these have not been enough to compensate for the erosive process or to rejuvenate the land to any great extent.
The island is divided into six municipalities: La Oliva, Puerto del Rosario, Betancuria, Antigua, Tuineje and Pájara. The capital is Puerto del Rosario (formerly Puerto de Cabras). The Islote de Lobos, with a surface area of 5 km2 is in the municipal area of La Oliva.
In the process of regional demographic development, the evolution of Fuerteventura has resulted in a loss of population, influenced by adverse economic and climatic conditions, which have most intensely affected the eastern islands of the archipelago which are dryer than the western islands.